University of Bayreuth, Press Release No 149/2023 -  24 October 2023  

New knowledge on the importance of tree leaves for CO2 storage

In a large-scale study with almost 400 partners, researchers worldwide have collected data on tree species. Scientists from Bayreuth have contributed their knowledge about the Kilimanjaro region. The study, which has now been published in the journal Nature Plants, improves our understanding of the different leaf types of trees and thus enables us to draw conclusions about ecosystems and the CO2 cycle. 

What purpose does the study serve? 
Prediction the evolution of ecosystems and the CO2 cycle.

By quantifying the distribution of tree leaf types and their corresponding biomass, and identifying regions where climate change will exert greater pressure on current leaf types, these findings will enable better predictions about the future functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle. The CO2 cycle plays an important role in the state of the atmosphere, the biosphere and thus our climate. Trees are the most important carbon sink, as they absorb and store CO2 through their leaves. Humans, on the other hand, primarily emit CO2 through the use of fossil fuels and exacerbate the development by clearing CO2-storing trees.

Understanding the different leaf types of trees is crucial for understanding their role in terrestrial ecosystems, including carbon, water and nutrient dynamics. Coniferous leaves differ from deciduous leaves in their water-saving, but thereby lower biomass productivity. Deciduous trees have adapted to seasonal climatic conditions. They can grow where evergreen trees cannot, namely in areas prone to frost or drought.

"However, our knowledge of the factors that influence the foliage types of forests is still limited, so we do not know exactly how large the proportion of coniferous and foliage-bearing as well as evergreen and deciduous trees is worldwide," says PD Dr. Andreas Hemp from the Department of Plant Systematics at the University of Bayreuth. To close this gap, almost 400 researchers worldwide have contributed data. This resulted in a global, ground-based assessment of variation in forest leaf types by merging data from almost 10,000 forest inventory plots with records from the international Plant Trait Database TRY on leaf shape (deciduous vs. coniferous) and habit (evergreen vs. deciduous). "We found that global variation in leaf longevity (leaf habit) depends primarily on the extent of seasonal temperature variation and soil properties, while leaf shape is primarily determined by temperature," says Hemp. For leaves to fulfil their important function in the ecosystem, these conditions must be right.

The result of this forest inventory: the researchers assume that 38% of the global tree individuals are evergreen conifers, 29% are evergreen deciduous trees, 27% are deciduous deciduous trees and 5% are deciduous conifers. Thus, these tree types correspond to 21%, 54%, 22% and 3%, respectively, of the above-ground biomass in forests.- that's between 18 and 335 gigatonnes! "In addition, we assume that by the end of the century at least 17% and up to 38% of forested areas will be exposed to climatic conditions that currently favour a different forest type than the one currently present, which illustrates the intensification of climatic stress on trees in certain regions," Hemp points out: "In natural forest areas, one must and can rely on nature's adaptability; in cultivated forests, as in Europe, one must sometimes think about forest conversion, which is also called for here for other reasons, for example, when one thinks of monocultures of trees. For example, when one thinks of monocultures of tree plantations with spruce that are not suited to the site."

Publication: Ma, H., Crowther, T.W., Mo, L. et al. The global biogeography of tree leaf form and habit. Nat. Plants  (2023). DOI:  


PD Dr. Andreas Hemp from the Chair of Plant Systematics at the University of Bayreuth is a member of the DFG-funded research network "Kili-SES", which analyses the interactions between humans and nature in the Kilimanjaro region, and together with Dr. Claudia Hemp (staff member at the Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre) heads the Nkweseko research station on the southern slope of Mount Kilimanjaro.

More about the university's research on Kilimanjaro:

An interview with Dr Claudia Hemp and PD Dr Andreas Hemp about their work:

Dr. Andreas Hemp

PD Dr. Andreas Hemp

Plant Systematics
University of Bayreuth

Phone: +49 (0) 921 / 55-2464 or +49 (0)9246 / 980979

Portraitbild von Anja Maria Meister

Anja-Maria Meister

PR Spokesperson University of Bayreuth

Phone: +49 (0) 921  55 - 5300